Welcome to English Language Test for SBI Prelims - Set 02

Directions (1-5): Read the following sentences and identify errors. There may be more than one error in the sentence. Check grammar, usage, redundancy, spelling etc.

Q.1 Pessimism is the tendency to see the dark side of life and a pessimist is someone who has this overall outlook.
Q.2 Before my mock interview, I went to a saloon for a hair cutting and the barber told me I have very long hairs and hard stubs
Q.3 Each of the 200 Bank POs produced by BankWaleBabu were good in Mathematics and Language both
Q.4 The test series happen to be one of the main speciality that is offered here
Q.5 While giving online tests, many a neck-to-neck performances are seen
Directions (6-7): The sentences given below are divided in four options. Choose the option, which is grammatically incorrect

Directions (8-10): Choose the option which is grammatically and contextually correct

Directions (11-14): Each of the sentences below has one or two blanks. Beneath the sentence are four numbered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words that best fills the blank(s) preserving the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

Q.11 As nations come together whether it is in the political, social or economic arena, some _______ of sovereignty is inevitable, but it need not necessarily result in the _______ of domestic objectives.
Q.12 ____________ of the external sector has helped the country successfully avert the ________ of the East Asian crisis.
Q.13 With the introduction of market-determined exchange rate, a change in the approach to reserve management was warranted and the emphasis on import cover had to be _______ with the objective of smoothening out the _________ in the exchange rate, which has been reflective of the underlying market condition
Q.14 You will seldom achieve full ________ as a mature adult if you wait for conditions to be perfect before ________ yourself
Directions (15-20): Fill in the blanks of the paragraph given below:

In an ___(15)_____ of rapid change, knowing what you don’t ___(16)___ is as valuable as knowing what you do. Unfortunately, leaders are often shielded from learning about new developments by the sheer volume and ___(17)___ of new information that is captured daily. Leaders in the AI age need to be ___(18)___ to learn and be open to seeking input from both inside and outside their organizations. They also need to trust others to know more than they do. This knowledge may well come from someone 20 years younger or three levels down the organizational hierarchy. In the AI age, an effective leader understands that someone having lower status or less experience doesn’t mean they cannot make a key contribution.

Companies like Nestlé have implemented extensive reverse mentoring programs. These initiatives are meant to institutionalize the process of learning to accept, welcome, and leverage the knowledge of team members, peers, and employees for the benefit of the business. Being humble may ___(19)___ inconsistent with the need to exude an image of confidence and authority. Yet there has always been a very weak ___(20)___ between confidence and actual competence, such that true experts are often more humble than individuals with very little or no expertise. As the British philosopher Bertrand Russell famously noted, “The trouble with the world is that the stupid are cocksure and the intelligent are full of doubt.”

Directions (21-27): Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on the same that follow:

Yes, India has huge natural resources. Unfortunately, India has a huge population as well. So with 2.4 percent of the world’s land area and 17 percent of the world’s population, the natural resource base does not seem all that rosy. Couple that with the fact that India does not have sufficient fossil fuel resources (we import a lot of that stuff) and one is not all that sanguine about India’s natural resources. How about human resources then? The story there is also not that pretty. We do have a thousand million people. But they are mostly literate. Literacy is the basic prerequisite for any sort of human capital. The primary occupation of majority of the population is agriculture. So then, do we have comparative advantage in agriculture? Perhaps we do or perhaps we don’t. The problem with comparative advantage is that it is not always entirely clear whether one has comparative advantage because one is good at something or whether it is due to the fact that one is not good at it but one is worse in everything else one does.

The only way to increase incomes is the old-fashioned way as my grandfather used to say: by producing stuff. Income, just to remind ourselves, is just another word for production. We produce a lot of stuff, so we get to have lots of stuff and that is what it means to have a high income. Therefore, for rural incomes to rise, rural production has to rise. Agricultural productivity has to increase ofcourse and then the labour released from agriculture has to produce manufactured stuff and then move on to producing services. There is very little by way of innovation that is required for rural incomes to increase, looked upon the way. But there may be innovations required for getting the productivity to increase. For instance, for raising human capital we may need innovative solutions to India’s literacy and education problems. For educating India’s umpteen millions of youth, we may need to use modern technology innovatively.

Production, rather than employment, should engage our policy makers more than it currently does. Why? Because if you don’t produce — irrespective of how many people you employ — you cannot distribute. Even if you distribute scanty production very evenly, you are left with a system that fails everyone.

Mechanization and automation expands the ‘production possibilities frontier’ and thus we can get more out of less — mostly less labor. Is that good or bad? Let me use a simple example. You can have 10 rickshaw pullers delivering transportation services through back breaking labor 12 hours a day. Or you can use auto rickshaws and employ only 2 people who work in relative comfort to provide the same services. Hypothetically you could have every one of those 10 former rickshaw pullers work only one day every 5 days and earn the same as before. On the other four days they could (1) spend time with family, or (2) learn to make pots, or (3) learn arithmetic, or (4) play the santoor, or (5) take care of his aging parents, or (5) contemplate the universe, …

Now if you are more interested in ’employment’, of course the hand pulled rickshaw is a more attractive system for you. To some, those were the good old days when you did not have the ‘dark satanic mills’, when you had simple country living with horse carriages providing the transportation, and the cooling was done by fans hand-pulled by shapely maidens as one reclined on a divan eating grapes, I guess. But in those days scanty little was produced and of that, the rich and the powerful got the lion’s share and the unwashed masses simply starved.

What has happened since those good old days? The economy has changed structurally. And that structural adjustment has produced more goods and services and having produced more, more people have a shot at living a less brutish, short, nasty and mean life. However, adjustments don’t come for free. There is a cost and that cost mostly falls on those whose services become redundant in the new production system. Typist and shorthand pools have disappeared. Instead we have web designers. People who are concerned about employment alone would have advocated the banning of research into computers and electronics to save the livelihood of typists and stenographers. For my money, I would go for a system that is hell bent upon production and having produced, hell bent upon an equitable distribution. Given scarce resources, the most efficient production method is most desirable. If that means more computers in banks, so be it. So you have to lay off bank clerks. But if you look around, humans are somewhat inventive and entrepreneurial. The system adjusts — not smoothly or costlessly — but eventually. And if done with sufficient forethought, without too much pain.

We have to get away from this fixation with employment and get more focused on production. We have to use the most efficient and effective tools that modern technology can provide to increase our production. And there will be enough people left over who can use their time to figure out how to distribute most equitably the stuff that is produced.

Q.21 It can be understood from the passage that the difference between comparative and absolute advantage is that?
Q.22 The author is a development economist who intends to create an awareness about:

(I) The possibilities of changing the illiterate population dependent on agriculture to a more focused group of educated individuals intent on economic development by moving towards industry and services sector

(II) The dilemma between creating more jobs, mainly labour-intensive or enhancing productivity and overall output in the economy by adopting new technologies

(III) The need to develop the infrastructural base of the econbomy that can support a huge population with relatively limited natural resources
Q.23 It can be inferred from the statement, “For educating India’s umpteen million of youth, we may need to use modern technology innovately’, that
Q.24 The statement, “……. And if done with sufficient forethought, without too much pain”, leads to the conclusion
Q.25 Which of the following best replaces the word ‘Structurally’ as used in the passage?
Q.26 Which of the following can be a perfect antonym of the word ‘released’ as used in the passage?
Q.27 What does the phrase ‘lay-off’ convey as used in the passage?
Directions (28-30): For the following questions, select the option that does not belong to the group.


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